Aging Gracefully Blog

Active Lifestyle Reduces Risk of Breast Cancer

October 12th, 2014

As we become more aware of the role that exercise plays in managing our risk factors for developing breast cancer and/or preventing a recurrence, it becomes apparent that being active is one of the top ways to avoid this disease.

Hundreds of studies show that getting exercise and avoiding weight gain can lower your risk of developing breast cancer.  Most studies see a benefit at 30 minutes of walking a day. One large study by the American Cancer Society study tracked 72,000 postmenopausal women for 5 years and found that the most active women - those who engaged in activities like walking, running, swimming, tennis, biking, aerobics and dancing- had a 29% lower risk of breast cancer than the least active. 

How is exercise protective?  In postmenopausal women, since the ovaries are no longer producing estrogen, the main source of estrogen is fat cells.  Reducing body weight and body fat with exercise decreases the amount of circulating estrogen that could stimulate breast-cell growth.   Being heavy increases your risk by as much as 40%.  One study showed that women who gained more than 20 pounds after age 18 had a higher risk of postmenopausal breast cancer than women who gained no more than 5 pounds.

 If you have been exercising and you do develop breast cancer, you will be better prepared to tolerate the treatments.  It's important to keep a positive mind set for getting through the treatment and think about living a healthy life afterward.  You want to create a positive mental environment for your body where it will be nurtured and thrive.

 

 

Happiness Improves Fitness

September 13th, 2014

The mind-body connection continues to amaze.  New research reveals a connection between happiness and increased fitness in older adults.  A large study of men and women aged 60 and older suggests that enjoyment of life contributes to a healthier and more active old age, as well as to a longer life.

Most of us share goals of remaining independent, keeping mentally sharp and staying as mobile as possible as we age.  Researchers at University College London conducted the study to discover whether a positive outlook is related to reduced physical impairment over a period of eight years.  They collected data on:

  • physical health
  • walking speed and mobility
  • depression
  • enjoyment of life
  • and levels of impairment in daily activities

Their findings showed strong associations between physical function and life enjoyment. Older people who enjoy life are at lower risk of developing problems with daily activities and for declines in physical function. Once again, a positive mental attitude contributes to a healthy body.

The study, as reported in Idea Fitness Journal, May 2014, is available in Canadian Medical Association Journal (2014;doi: 10.1503/cmaj.131155).

For more posts on this topic, please see:

Get Fit Now!  Midlife Fitness Predicts Healthy Old Age

Seven Habits of Highly Resilient People

A Tribute to a Special Woman

 

Burn Calories or Fat to Lose Weight?

August 13th, 2014

Which contributes to greater weight loss:  exercising in the "fat-burning" zone or at a higher level of intensity?  The answer lies in the number of calories burned not in which fuel substrate the body uses for energy.

To burn the most calories, you need to exercise at higher intensities.  For example, you burn more calories running for 30 minutes than walking for the same amount of time.  Running consumes calories from readily available fuel of carbohydrates. Walking at a more leisurely pace utilizes slower-burning fat for fuel; however you are using fewer calories per minute than with more intense exercise.

Higher intensity exercise also offers another benefit for weight loss in that it temporarily suppresses your appetite.  A recent study showed that cyclists who rode stationary bikes hard for 30 minutes consumed far fewer calories afterward than when they rode at a more moderate pace.  They also had lower blood levels of the hormone ghrelin, a known appetite stimulant.

According to other new research high intensity interval raining (HIIT), short bursts of intense exercise alternating with recovery periods, may have the potential to lower abdominal fat by creating a surge in hormones that have been shown to drive fat breakdown, especially deep abdominal fat.

So we can conclude that high intensity exercise contributes to weight loss by burning calories, suppressing appetite and reducing abdominal fat.  If you are a fan of moderate exercise, there are several ways to ramp up your program:

  • Know your heart rate training range which determines how hard you should work for light, moderate and high intensity levels.
  • Intersperse faster paced intervals into your moderate cardio activity.  Allow twice as long to recover from a high intensity interval, i.e. if you sprint for 1 minute, allow two minutes of active rest.
  • Add intervals of cardio activity into your strength training program, so that you keep your heart rate elevated continuously.

For more posts on this topic, please see:

Cardio Tune-Up

The 7-Minute Workout

Have You Got IT?  Maximize the Minutes in Your Workout

 

Exercise for Younger Skin

July 20th, 2014

A new study shows that endurance training can reverse skin aging in people who start exercising later in life.  Volunteers aged 65 or older responded to exercise with skin composition very similar to 20- to 40- year olds.

As we age, changes occur within the layers of our skin.  After age 40, the outer layer of the epidermis begins to thicken, getting drier, denser and flakier.  The layer of skin just beneath begins to thin, losing cells and elasticity, making it appear more translucent and less firm.

As recently reported in the New York Times, researchers at McMaster University in Ontario conducted a study to see whether such changes are inevitable. The surprising results showed that at the start of the study the volunteers, age 65 or older, had normal skin for their age.  However at the end of a three month program of 30 minutes of moderate intensity jogging or cycling twice a week, their skin samples compared to those of much younger people.

In order to understand how exercise causes these changes, the researchers further checked for alterations in levels of substances created by the working muscles.  Called myokines, these substances are known to jump start changes in cells far from the muscles themselves. They found that the volunteers had almost 50 percent more myokines after exercising than at the start of the study.  It's unlikely that any pill, cream or injection will ever compare to the skin benefits of a workout! 

For the complete article, click here.

 

10 Ways to Avoid Running Injuries

June 14th, 2014

Are you after a runner's high, a cardio tune-up or calorie burn? Whatever your motivation, early summer is an ideal season for running outside when you can breathe in fresh air, soak up Vitamin D from the sun, and enjoy green space. 

As millions of people take to city parks, country trails and high school tracks running injuries abound.  Not surprisingly, knee related injuries account for 25-50% of all lower extremity injuries (as reported in IDEA Fitness Journal, June 2014).  The foot, ankle, lower leg, hip and low back are also vulnerable. 

To keep you in the running, you must take steps to avoid injury from the most common causes.

1)         Do not increase your weekly mileage rapidly.  Make gradual changes.

2)         After a lay-off, take your time returning to your normal mileage.

3)         Avoid continuous high mileage. Risk increases meaningfully at 40 or more miles/week. 

4)         Intersperse some low-impact cross training like cycling and swimming.  Running 12 months without a break from training increases risk of injury.

5)         Alternate hard training days with lighter workouts.

6)         Steer clear of an abrupt change in running surface (grass, woodland trails, cinders, synthetic track, treadmill, concrete, etc.).

7)         Avoid running on uneven surfaces.  Most grassland, for example, is uneven and can cause problems for runners with unstable ankles.  At the beach, the tilt of sand at waters edge puts uneven stresses on the body.

8)         Change your running shoes every 350-550 miles, depending on your running style, body weight and surface.  Inadequate or worn-out footwear lacks stability and shock absorption.       

9)         If you have a history of previous injuries, learn to recognize the onset of the injury and control it.  Novice runners have higher rates of injury than seasoned runners because of this.

10)       Stay away from busy streets (for obvious reasons!)

 For other blog posts about running, please see

 

Spring is the Season for Hip Fractures

April 23rd, 2014

New research reveals that most hip fractures occur in the spring in women over the age of 55.  Falls are the leading cause of these fractures in post-menopausal women, emphasizing the need for counseling to reduce the risk of falling both inside and outside the home.

As published In the current issue of the National Osteoporosis Foundation Report (April 2014), a group of researchers examined fracture data from 60,000 post-menopausal women from the US, Canada, Australia and seven European countries.  They found that only hip fractures showed a seasonal variation, with the majority occurring in the spring.  The main cause was falls resulting from slipping or tripping, both inside (52%) and outside (48%) the home.

One contributing factor could be lower levels of Vitamin D due to reduced exposure to sunlight over the winter which manifest in spring, however this was not studied. In addition to adequate Vitamin D, we need enough calcium to mineralize the bones.  Due to conflicting results of several major studies regarding calcium supplementation, experts recommend that the safest and most effective source of calcium is found in food choices, not supplements, and that exercise is key to bone health, specifically weight bearing and strength training exercise.

For more on the calcium controversy and types of exercise beneficial to the bones, please refer to this previous blog post.